Minor Skin Surgery

6.2)BCC
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In dermatology the following minor surgical techniques are used for the removal of skin tissue damage, which are known as lesions, such as moles, skin tags, warts & genital warts (papillomas), keratoses and other skin tumours.

CO2 Laser

The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) is the most advanced technique for the removal of skin lesions. A narrow beam of light  from the laser is focused directly on the damaged tissue and eradicates it without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue at all. The process is quick, painless, non-invasive, safe and effective.

This type of laser is used to remove sebaceous keratoses, warts (papillomas), epitheliomas, skin fibrosis and other skin lesions. After the application of laser direct sunlight should be avoided for a few days and sunscreen lotion with a high protection factor should be applied.

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery is the application of extreme cold by using a strong refrigerant, known as a cryogen, to destroy abnormal tissues such as tumours.

In order to heal the tissue, a sufficiently low temperature is achieved by applying liquid nitrogen, which is kept in special containers at a temperature of -196°C. The application of the liquid nitrogen to the damaged skin is done either by spraying or by using metal contact probes that cause freezing of the skin. Soon after redness and swelling is formed in the treated area. The next day blisters may be seen followed  by a dry scab that falls off within 7 to 10 days. The destruction of abnormal tissue is achieved through the crystallization of intracellular and extracellular fluid due to the freezing temperatures and the changes in the skin created by the ice formed.

Cryotherapy, also called cryopexy, is currently used for the treatment of numerous skin conditions. It is mostly used for the removal of common and plantar warts, actinic keratoses, basal epithelioma, skin fibrosis, sebaceous hyperkeratosis,  molluscum contagiosum, of lentigines and keloid scars.

Cryosurgical treatment can be considered  successful when rapid freezing and slow defrosting of the lesion is achieved. In general, several short sessions of cryosurgery can cause greater tissue damage and are therefore better than one longer session.

The side effects of cryosurgery are minimal and usually subside quickly. The most common being pain and swelling which is caused by the application of liquid nitrogen, while, more rarely, after healing there may be a change in the pigmentation of the skin or atrophic scarring in the area that was treated.

Diathermy

Diathermy, electrocoagulation or electrocauterisation are therapeutic techniques which belong to the medical field of electrosurgery. Specialized equipment is used to rapidly induce heat in the lesion which in turn leads to localized burning and destruction of tissue in the affected area.   In this way we achieve the removal of various skin lesions such as warts (papillomas), seborrheic keratoses, milia and so on. Diathermy should not be administered to patients with pacemakers or defibrillators, to patients with recurrent skin cancers or to patients receiving  anticoagulant medication.

Laser Treatment of Onychomycosis

Onychomycosis is a very common fungal nail condition that can cause pain, discomfort, and disfigurement and may produce substantial physical and occupational limitations leading to reduction in quality of life. It is therefore extremely important to determine the optimum form of treatment in order to have a successful outcome. In a lot of cases patients fail to find a  cure through conventional orally administered medications and may have undesirable side effects. as a result of taking them.

A technologically advanced non-pharmacological intervention for cases of onychomycosis is the use of laser beam equipment. One of the strongest advantages of laser is the ability that the doctor has to select the exact amount of energy that needs to be applied to the targeted tissue depending on the severity of the fungal infection. This gives better results while also avoiding any negative reactions associated with using medicine.